Trademark Series: Confusion (Part 2)

By Richard Stobbe

So much confusion, so little time. The Trade-marks Act teaches us that the use of one trade-mark causes confusion with another trade-mark if the use of both trade-marks in the same area would likely lead to the inference that the products associated with those trade-marks emanate from the same person, even if the products are of a different class. Confusion is assessed by looking at all the surrounding circumstances including:

  • the inherent distinctiveness of the trade-marks;

  • the extent to which the marks have become known;

  • the length of time the trade-marks have been in use;

  • the nature of the products or business;

  • the nature of the trade; and

  • the degree of resemblance between the two trade-marks in appearance or sound or in the ideas suggested by them.

In the case of U-Haul International Inc. v. U Box It Inc., 2015 FC 1345 (CanLII), U-Haul International applied to register the trade-marks U-BOX WE-HAUL and U-BOX, for use in association with “moving and storage services, namely, rental moving, storage, delivery and pick up of portable storage units.” A competitor – U Box It – opposed these applications on the basis of confusion with its registered U BOX IT mark for use for use in association with “garbage removal and waste management services.” 

Are “moving and storage services” in the same area as  “garbage removal and waste management services”? 

U-Haul argued that the two companies offer completely different services, and “that garbage removal and waste management are the ‘exact opposite’ of moving and storage, and in different channels of trade.” However, the court agreed with the opponent’s argument that confusion was based on “the similar manner in which the services are provided, and not on any finding that the services were in fact the same.”

After reviewing all of the factors listed above, the court found a reasonable likelihood of confusion, and refused to register the two marks U-BOX WE-HAUL and U-BOX, based on confusion with the registered mark U BOX IT.

 

Calgary – 05:00 MST

 

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Trademark Series: Confusion (Part 1)

By Richard Stobbe

A interesting Report on Business article by the founder of a Canadian business is useful as a cautionary tale about brand confusion (see: I was outraged when Sobey’s rebranded its chain with the same name as my company). The author of the article tells of her struggles when grocery chain Sobeys launched a brand – FRESHCO – that was identical to the name of her then 15-year old company, also named FRESHCO.  It sounds like a frustrating experience. In particular, the author notes that her company was “federally incorporated across Canada, and not trademarked,” leaving her with no legal options to prevent the entry of Sobey’s FRESHCO brand for grocery store services. For small business owners or start-ups, this might be worth examining with a legal lens:

  • First, it’s important to remember that incorporation is completely different from trademark registration. One is creation of a corporate entity, and one is the registration of a brand name. The corporate name sometimes (but does not necessarily) mirror the core brand name of the business. A corporate name is no guarantee of anything in the trademark realm.
  • Next, don’t forget that trademark rights are based on use in the marketplace, and a business generates certain trademark rights even without taking the step of registration at the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. In other words, a  business can defend common law trademark rights based on past use even in the absence of a registered trademark. It’s just harder than with a registered mark.
  • A registered trademark provides stronger rights across Canada, and that kind of brand protection should always be considered by business owners as part of their investment. Even after an incident like the one described by this author, it’s open to the earlier user of the mark to apply for registration, even after many years of “unregistered” use.
  • In this case, the Sobey’s trademark FRESHCO for grocery services is in a different channel of trade than the author’s FRESHCO mark for construction services. Trademark law permits similar or even identical marks to co-exist, so long as consumers aren’t confused. Think of DELTA for hotel services and DELTA for faucets. Identical marks, different channels of trade. There is actually nothing improper about that, as frustrating as it may seem to the earlier user.

The author appears to have used this as a positive opportunity to reinvest in the brand and refocus the company’s marketing message. If this kind of thing happens to your business, ensure that you get legal advice from an experienced trademark lawyer on your options as you make decisions for your company.

 

Calgary – 07:00 MST

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Clickwrap Agreement From a Paper Contract?

 
By Richard Stobbe

Can a binding contract be formed merely with a link to another set of terms? (For background on this topic, check out our earlier post What, exactly, is a browsewrap? which reviews browsewraps, clickwraps, clickthroughs, terms of use, terms of service and EULAs).

The answer is clearly… it depends. Consider the American case of Holdbrook Pediatric Dental, LLC, v. Pro Computer Service, LLC (PCS), a New Jersey decision which considered the enforceability of a set of terms which were linked from a paper hard-copy version of the contract. In this case, PCS sent a contract to its customer electronically. The customer printed out the paper version and signed it in hard copy. A hyperlink appeared near the signature line, pointing to a separate set of Terms and Conditions in HTML code. Of course on the paper copy these terms cannot be hyperlinked.

PCS asserted that these separate terms were incorporated into the signed paper contract, since they function as a clickable hyperlink in the electronic version.  The court disagreed: “In order for there to be a proper and enforceable incorporation by reference of a separate document . . . the party to be bound by the terms must have had ‘knowledge of and assented to the incorporated terms.’”  Here, there was no independent assent to the additional Terms and Conditions, and the mixed media nature of the contracting process worked against PCS. In addition to the fact that the separate terms were not easily accessible by the customer, the text was not clear. It merely said “Download Terms and Conditions”, without providing reasonable notice to the customer that assent to the main contract included assent to these additional terms. The additional terms were not binding on the customer.

Lessons for business? Get legal advice!

 

Calgary – 07:00 MST

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Copyright Injunction Covers Vancouver Aquarium Video

 

By Richard Stobbe

The Vancouver Aquarium brought an injunction application to stop the online publication of a critical video entitled “Vancouver Aquarium Uncovered”, which used the Aquarium’s copyright-protected materials in a “derogatory manner”, according to the Aquarium.

In the fascinating case of Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre v. Charbonneau, 2016 BCSC 625 (CanLII), the court weighed the Aquarium’s effort to prevent the unauthorized use of their copyright-protected video clips, against the movie producer’s argument that the exposé is on a topic of public interest and shouldn’t be silenced.

This represents the first judicial review of Section 29.21 of the Copyright Act, first introduced in 2012, which covers “non-commercial user-generated content”. In the injunction application the court skimmed over this issue, preferring to leave it to trial. However, the court made passing comments about the availability of a defence which relies on showing that the copyright-protected content was used “solely for non-commercial purposes”. In this case, there was evidence before the court that the movie had recently been screened in Vancouver where attendees had been charged a $10 entry fee. The court also made reference to an Indiegogo fundraising campaign related to the movie production.

Ultimately, the court restricted publication of 15 images and video clips – about 4 minutes worth of content – which the Aquarium claimed to own. The injunction stopped short of attempting to enjoin publication of the whole video, but rather ordered that the defendants remove the 15 contested segments from the video.

If it proceeds to trial, this will be one to watch.

 

Calgary – 07:00 MST

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Trademark Series: Deviations!

By Richard Stobbe

The adage “use it or lose it” captures the essence of the ongoing requirement to put a trademark into commercial use. If you abandon your mark, you effectively give up your trademark rights. The corollary is to “use it as registered, or lose it” Not quite as catchy, but just as important.

The Federal Court decision in Padcon Ltd. v. Gowling Lafleur Henderson LLP 2015 FC 943 reminds us of this. In this case, a trademark owner obtained a registration in 2006 for the mark THE OUTRIGGER STEAKHOUSE AND BAR in association with “restaurant, bar and pub services”. When challenged, the trademark owner could only show use of the word OUTRIGGER alone, together with the ® symbol, on its menus and on some related promotional materials. 

Are deviations permitted? When the court considers a mark-as-used against the mark-as-registered, it will consider the following test:

The practical test to be applied in order to resolve a case of this nature is to compare the trade mark as it is registered with the trade mark as it is used and determine whether the differences between these two marks are so unimportant that an unaware purchaser would be likely to infer that both, in spite of their differences, identify goods having the same origin.

That question must be answered in the negative unless the mark was used in such a way that the mark did not lose its identity and remained recognizable in spite of the differences between the form in which it was registered and the form in which it was used.

The court decided that use of OUTRIGGER alone on menus and promotional materials did not constitute evidence of use of the mark-as-registered: THE OUTRIGGER STEAKHOUSE AND BAR. The registration was expunged.

Lessons for business?

  • Review your marks-as-used, and compare against your marks-as-registered.
  • Consider developing brand guidelines to ensure that your organization, and others who might be authorized to use your trademarks, are in compliance with the guidelines.
  • If you already have brand guidelines, ensure that there are clear lines of responsibility for enforcement.

Calgary – 11:00 MT

 

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Facebook Follows Google to the SCC

 

By Richard Stobbe

A class action case against Facebook (see our previous posts for more background) is heading to the Supreme Court of Canada.

The BC Court of Appeal in Douez v. Facebook, Inc., 2015 BCCA 279 (CanLII)  had reviewed the question of whether the Facebook terms (which apply California law) should be enforced in Canada or whether they should give way to local B.C. law. The appeal court reversed the trail judge and decided that the Facebook’s forum selection clause should be enforced.

Facebook now joins Google, whose own internet jurisdiction is also going up to the Supreme Court of Canada this year.

These are two cases to watch.

Calgary – 07:00 MT

 

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Trademark Series: Can a Geographical Name be a Trademark?

By Richard Stobbe

Let’s take an example. Is the word PARIS registrable as a trademark in Canada? A quick search of the registry shows that there are over 250 registered marks which contain the word PARIS for everything from jewelry to software to real estate management services.

A geographical name can be registrable. It depends. The issue is whether the word is “clearly descriptive or deceptively misdescriptive” in the English or French languages of the place of origin of the goods or services.

In MC Imports Inc. v. AFOD Ltd., a 2016 case Federal Court of Appeal decision, the court reviewed a challenge to the registered mark LINGAYEN in association with fish sauce and shrimp paste products. The owner of the LINGAYEN mark had sued a competitor for infringement; the competitor sold shrimp paste under a different brand, but the packaging included the phrase “Lingayen Style” to describe its product. This reference to “Lingayen” was, according to the claim, an infringement of the LINGAYEN registered mark.

Lingayen is a municipality in the Philippines known for its distinctive shrimp paste products. Thus, the court found that the use of the phrase “Lingayen Style” was not use of the word for trademark purposes, but was used to describe the place of origin of the goods with which it is associated.  Therefore, there was no infringement.

When considering a geographical trademark, ensure that you seek experienced counsel.

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Calgary – 07:00 MST

 

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Trademark Series: Famous Marks in Canada

By Richard Stobbe

Adidas, Veuve Clicquot, Barbie… When is a mark considered “famous” in Canada, and do famous marks enjoy special protection? A handful of Canadian cases have outlined the court’s treatment of well-known brands:

  • Sure, Barbie is famous… but not “trump-card” famous. That was the conclusion of the court in Mattel, Inc v 3894207 Canada Inc., when Mattel raised a challenged that the mark BARBIE used in connection with “restaurant services” would lead consumers to make an inference that the restaurant was affiliated with Mattel’s famous BARBIE doll mark.
    Canadian Courts will not automatically presume that there will be confusion just because one mark is famous. As the Federal Court in Mattel phrased it, “the fame of the mark could not act as a marketing trump card such that the other factors are thereby obliterated.” Canadian courts will assess all of the surrounding circumstances to determine confusion. In Mattel, they considered the restaurant services to be distinguishable from Mattel’s famous doll.
  • The owner of the famous luxury brand VEUVE CLICQUOT encountered similar difficulties in its infringement claim against a purveyor of “mid-priced women’s wear” being sold under the brand CLIQUOT in Quebec.  In Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin v Boutiques Cliquot Ltée., Veuve Clicquot argued that the association with – sniff – mid-priced apparel was damaging its carefully managed reputation. In an interesting turn of phrase from the decision, the Supreme Court of Canada noted that the champagne maker “has been building its fine reputation with the drinking classes since before the French Revolution.” The role of champagne “drinking classes” as a catalyst for the French Revolution is perhaps a topic for a separate article. In any event, the Court did not find any evidence that the VEUVE CLICQUOT brand image was tarnished, or that the goodwill was otherwise devalued or diluted. The infringement claim was dismissed, leaving the CLIQUOT women’s wear shops free to continue business.
  • In a more recent case, shoemaker Adidas challenged a competitor’s registration of a two-stripe design for shoes. Adidas complained that the two-stripe design was confusing with its own three-stripe design. In Adidas AG v. Globe International Nominees Pty Ltd., the Federal Court conceded that “the adidas 3-Stripes Design is well-known, if not famous, in Canada and internationally.” However, in deciding that the two-stripe mark was not confusing with the Adidas 3-stripe design, the Court sounded a cautionary note for owners of famous brands:

    “Fame and notoriety associated with a trademark can be a double-edged sword for a trademark owner. On the one hand, an enhanced reputation may provide the owner with extended protection for the trademark beyond goods and/or services covered by a registration for the marks … On the other hand, when a trademark becomes so well known or famous that the public is so familiar with it and readily identifies that trademark as used in the marketplace on goods and/or services, it may be that even as a matter of first impression, any differences between the well-known mark and another party’s trademark, as used on the same or similar goods and/or services, may serve to more easily distinguish the other party’s trademark and reduce any likelihood of confusion.”

    Put another way, a mark can be so well-known to consumers that small differences in a competing mark will enable consumers to distinguish between the two marks.

Get advice on trade-mark protection and infringement from Field Law’s experienced trademark team.

 

Calgary – 07:00 MT

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Trademark Series: What is “use” of a trademark?

By Richard Stobbe

This is a story of what “use” really means. In the internet context, a trademark can be displayed on a website by a Canadian company, and that website can be accessed anywhere in the world. Similarly, a foreign company can display its mark on a website which can be accessed by Canadian consumers. Is the foreign company’s mark being “used” in Canada for trademark purposes, merely by being displayed online to Canadian consumers?

If you follow this kind of thing… and who doesn’t?… you would say that this issue was settled in the 2012 case HomeAway.com, Inc. v Hrdlicka, [2012] FCJ No 1665 where Justice Hughes said clearly: “a trade-mark which appears on a computer screen website in Canada, regardless where the information may have originated from or be stored, constitutes for Trade-Marks Act purposes, use and advertising in Canada.”

Not so fast.

In Supershuttle International, Inc. v. Fetherstonhaugh & Co., 2015 FC 1259 (CanLII), the court reviewed  a challenge to the SUPERSHUTTLE trademark, which was registered in connection with “airport passenger ground transportation services”. The SUPERSHUTTLE mark was displayed to Canadian consumers who could reserve airport shuttle transportation in the United States. The mark was registered in Canada and displayed in Canada, but no shuttle services were actually performed in Canada. The court concluded that: “While the observation of a trademark by individuals on computers in Canada may demonstrate use of a mark, the registered services must still be offered in Canada.” (Emphasis added)

Non-Canadian trademark owners should take note: merely displaying a mark in Canada via the internet may not be enough for “use” of that mark in Canada. The services or products which are listed in the registration must be available in Canada. Make sure you get experienced advice regarding registration of marks in Canada.

 

Calgary – 07:00 MT

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Class Action Against Google’s Crowd Sourcing

reCaptchaBy Richard Stobbe

Most of us have had to pass through a CAPTCHA screen in order to log in or use a web-based service. This often involves deciphering and typing in one or two garbled words.  One of the more popular screens is operated by Google and known as reCAPTCHA.

When Google recruits your human brain to decode text in the reCAPTCHA screen, it is doing two things: it is providing a service that protects websites from bots, automated spam and abuse, “while letting real people pass through with ease.”  Second, it is deciphering text that stumps OCR technology, all the while teaching its own robots, through machine learning, to improve their predictive analysis of human text. (We can have a philosophical discussion about how being “tough on bots” is actually teaching the bots to read like humans… but that’s a topic for another day).

Put another way, “Google is ‘crowd sourcing’ the transcription of words that a computer cannot decipher.” In a fascinating decision (GABRIELA ROJAS-LOZANO, v. GOOGLE, INC.),  a California court has dismissed a class action claim that users deserved some compensation for the service they were providing to Google.  To paraphrase, the lawsuit alleged that Google failed to disclose that the second reCAPTCHA word was used for transcription services (from which Google profits) rather than for website security purposes.

However, according to the judge, profit by Google does not translate into a loss for the user who performs this micro-task, which takes each user only a few seconds.  Plaintiff could not cite any case that supports the theory that a non-employee transcribing a single word is owed compensation.  Since this is such a small amount of time, and there was no loss, damages or reliance on the part of the user, and no actionable misrepresentation or unjust enrichment on the part of Google, the court concluded that the class action should be dismissed.

Hat tip to Professor Eric Goldman, who calls this “one of the most interesting Internet law rulings so far in 2016.”

Calgary – 07:00 MT

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CASL Enforcement (Part 2)

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By Richard Stobbe

As reviewed in Part 1, since July 1, 2014, Canada’s Anti-Spam Law (or CASL) has been in effect, and the software-related provisions have been in force since January 15, 2015.

In January, 2016, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) executed a search warrant at business locations in Ontario in the course of an ongoing investigation relating to the installation of malicious software (malware) (See: CRTC executes warrant in malicious malware investigation). The allegations also involve alteration of transmission data (such as an email’s address, date, time, origin) contrary to CASL. This represents one of the first enforcement actions under the computer-program provisions of CASL.

The first publicized case came in December, 2015, when the CRTC announced that it took down a “command-and-control server” located in Toronto as part of a coordinated international effort, working together with Federal Bureau of Investigation, Europol, Interpol, and the RCMP. This is perhaps the closest the CRTC gets to international criminal drama. (See: CRTC serves its first-ever warrant under CASL in botnet takedown).

Given the proliferation of malware, two actions in the span of a year cannot be described as aggressive enforcement, but it is very likely that this represents the visible tip of the iceberg of ongoing investigations.

Calgary – 07:00 MT

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CASL Enforcement (Part 1)

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By Richard Stobbe

Since July 1, 2014, Canada’s Anti-Spam Law (or CASL) has been in effect, and the software-related rules have been in force since January 15, 2015.

With the benefit of hindsight, we can see a few patterns emerge from the efforts by the enforcement trifecta: the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, the CRTC and the Competition Bureau. (For background, see our earlier posts) What follows is a round-up of some of the most interesting and instructive enforcement actions:

  • March 2015 – A notice of violation was issued by the Competition Bureau to 3510395 Canada Inc. (dba Compu.Finder) with an accompanying administrative monetary penalty of $1,100,000 for sending commercial electronic messages without the consent and for commercial electronic messages which contained an ineffective unsubscribe mechanism in violation of CASL.
  • March 2015 – A penalty of $48,000 was levied against Plentyoffish Media Inc. as part of an undertaking concerning an alleged CASL violation related to an unsubscribe mechanism that was not set out “clearly and prominently” and was not able to be “readily performed”.
  • March 2015 – The Competition Bureau commenced action against Avis Budget Group Inc. for deceptive marketing practices, seeking $30 million in administrative monetary penalties from the companies, and refunds for consumers. The Bureau took action under CASL since Avis and Budget used electronic messages to disseminate the alleged false or misleading representations.
  • June 2015 – Porter Airlines Inc. paid $150,000 as part of an undertaking concerning certain CASL violations that were very similar to those which caught Plentyoffish. The Porter allegations related to commercial electronic messages that contained an unsubscribe mechanism that was not set out “clearly and prominently”, or that were missing an unsubscribe mechanism.
  • November 2015 – Similarly, Rogers Media paid $200,000 as part of a CASL investigation into commercial electronic messages that either contained an unsubscribe mechanism that was not able to be “readily performed”, that did not enable the person to indicate their wish to no longer receive messages or that did not provide an electronic address for the purposes of unsubscribing that was valid for a period of 60 days after the message was sent.
  • This certainly points to the more technical risks of poorly implemented unsubscribe features, rather than underlying gaps in consent. Perhaps this is because heavy enforcement action related directly to consent is still to come. Implied consent can be relied upon during a three-year transitional period. After that window closes, expect enforcement to focus on failures of consent.

    To put this all in perspective, consider enforcement of other laws within the CRTC mandate: in 2014 the CRTC did not issue any notices of violation of CASL, but issued 10 notices of violation related to the Unsolicited Telecommunications Rules and the National Do Not Call List (DNCL); in 2015 the CRTC issued 1 notice of violation of CASL and about 20 related to the Do Not Call List.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    The IP Dimensions of 3D Printing: a recent decision

    By Richard Stobbe

    align-capture.PNGThere has been much speculation about the impact of 3D printing on the enforcement of IP rights. But very few decisions. Now, finally, a case you can sink your teeth into: ClearCorrect v. ITC, 2014-1527 deals squarely with a patent infringement allegation which focuses on 3D-printing technology.

    This case relates to the production of orthodontic appliances known as teeth aligners. According to patents owned by Align Technology, their aligners “are configured to be placed successively on the patient’s teeth and to incrementally reposition the teeth from an initial tooth arrangement, through a plurality of intermediate tooth arrangements, and to a final tooth arrangement…” as listed in the ’880 patent. (As soon as you see the word “plurality”, you just know you’re reading a good patent.)

    ClearCorrect, a competitor of Align Technology, produced aligners by means of 3D-printed digital models of aligners. ClearCorrect electronically transmitted digital files to its subsidiary ClearCorrect Pakistan (thus skirting the US patent rights) where digital models of the aligners were created and configured. ClearCorrect Pakistan then electronically transmitted these digital models back to ClearCorrect US, where the digital models were 3D-printed into physical models. From there, aligners were manufactured using the physical models.

    The patent owner alleged that the transmission of these digital three-dimensional models should be stopped at the border, just like any infringing “article” would be stopped. Typically, an owner of US patent rights can employ the resources of the ITC to stop and seize articles – take for example, a piece of equipment or a consumer product – which infringes a US patent. This prevents the infringing articles from being imported into the US, even if they are manufactured overseas. In this case, the court had to decide if digital three-dimensional files constituted “articles” for these purposes.

    In the end, the court considered articles to be “material things” and decided that the 3D-printable digital files were not “articles”. Thus, the ITC lacked jurisdiction to prevent the entry of these files into the US. (Exactly how it could prevent the transmission of the files is another matter entirely.)

    Something to chew on while we wait to see if the decision will be appealed.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    Copyright Act confers no rights upon animals

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    By Richard Stobbe

    Naruto the monkey must abandon his budding photography career and go back to using his opposable thumbs towards some other end. To bring the monkey-selfie case to a close, the US District Court outlined its careful reasoning for rejecting the copyright claims of Naruto, a six-year-old crested macaque. (If you missed the background story, see our earlier post.)

    The decision in Naruto v. Slater (US District Court No. Calif. Case 15-cv-04324-WHO) is, if nothing else, a study in restraint. The judge reviews cases involving other non-human claimants, such as the 2004 decision dealing with a claim advanced on behalf of the world’s whales, porpoises, and dolphins, regarding violations of the US Endangered Species Act.

    In its final analysis, the court concluded: “Naruto is not an ‘author’ within the meaning of the Copyright Act. Next Friends argue that this result is ‘antithetical’ to the ‘tremendous [public] interest in animal art.’ Perhaps. But that is an argument that should be made to Congress and the President, not to me. The issue for me is whether Next Friends have demonstrated that the Copyright Act confers standing upon Naruto. In light of the plain language of the Copyright Act, past judicial interpretations of the Act’s authorship requirement, and guidance from the Copyright Office, they have not.”

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    What does it mean to circumvent a “Technological Protection Measure”?

    By Richard Stobbe

    Copyright attempts to balance the rights of authors with the rights of users. It’s this tension – copyrights vs. user rights – that makes copyright so fascinating (…to some people).

    In 2012, Parliament enacted some changes to Canadian copyright law, which included a number of so-called “user rights” or exceptions to infringement, some of which were conditional on rules dealing with the circumvention of technological protection measures. I’ll give you an example: under section 29.23, recording a TV program for time shifting on your PVR is not an infringement of copyright as long as you did not circumvent a technological protection measure (or “TPM”). So circumvention of a TPM can take you outside the benefit of the exception, with the result that the recording would constitute an infringement.

    No court has had a chance to review the rules around TPMs… until the decision in 1395804 Ontario Limited (Blacklock’s Reporter) v Canadian Vintners Association (CVA), 2015 CanLII 65885 (ON SCSM), an Ontario decision which interprets circumvention of a TPM.

    A “technological protection measure” is, according to the Copyright Act any “effective technology, device or component” that controls access to a work and whose use is authorized by the copyright owner. It is deliberately broad. The Blacklock’s case dealt with a subscription-based online newsletter published by Blacklock’s. When their CEO was mentioned in a Blacklock’s article, the CVA bypassed the subscriber paywall to access the article. Did the CVA hack into the system and then scrape and republish the Blacklock’s content? No (although such conduct might have justified the $13,000 in copyright infringement damages that were awarded by the judge). The CVA obtained a copy of the article via email, from a colleague who did have a subscription.

    According to this case, circumventing a technological protection measure includes obtaining a copy of an article by email, where the article sits behind a paywall. The good news is that no hacking skills are required!

    Since this case will not be appealed, it stands as the leading case, although it has been called controversial, bizarre and an extraordinary misreading of copyright law. Since it is the decision of an Ontario small-claims court, it is not binding on other courts in Canada. And since Blacklock’s is pursuing copyright infringement claims against others – there are 10 claims currently filed in the Federal Court – this issue should be canvassed at the Federal Court where further clarification may emerge. Stay tuned.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    Wait… Did you say jail time for trademark infringement?

    By Richard Stobbe

    Imprisonment in intellectual property infringement cases is rare – although not unheard of. The message from a recent Canadian Federal Court decision is… don’t mess with the Court. They expect compliance with their orders and a contempt order can lead to a “warrant of committal”, resulting in imprisonment.

    In 2013, a Federal Court ruled that Hightimes Smokeshop and its officer and director, Ameen Muhammad had infringed the “HIGH TIMES” trademark owned by Trans-High Corporation (See: Trans-High Corporation v Hightimes Smokeshop and Gifts Inc., 2013 FC 1190 (CanLII)). In spite of this judgment, the judgement was ignored, and trademark infringement continued on the shop signage, sales receipts and printed materials of Hightimes Smokeshop.

    Then in June 2015, Hightimes Smokeshop and Mr. Muhammad each pleaded guilty to five counts of contempt which resulted in the issuance of a Contempt Order, and an award of $62,500 in costs, payable by Hightimes Smokeshop and Mr. Muhammad, jointly and severally. However, that Contempt Order was also ignored and no money was paid to Trans-High Corporation.

    In Trans-High Corporation v. Hightimes Smokeshop and Gifts Inc., 2015 FC 1104 (CanLII), Trans-High Corporation brought another motion to compel compliance with the Contempt Order, citing a ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada, that a person who is ordered by a court to pay money may be imprisoned for contempt if he or she shows “a certain degree of intention to evade his or her obligations”; or, put another way “he or she is unwilling to pay the debt despite having the ability to pay” (see paragraph 11).

    The Court issued a warrant for the arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Muhammad, arising from contempt in a trademark infringement case.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    Artist Sues Starbucks Claiming Copyright Infringement

    starbucks.PNGNew York artist Maya Hayuk was approached by an advertising agency working for Starbucks, to see if she would assist them with a proposed advertising campaign. Ms. Hayuk is known internationally for her paintings using bold colors, and vibrant geometric shapes – rays, lines, stripes and circles.

    She declined the offer to work with Starbucks (too busy) and was surprised when she saw the final marketing campaign for the Starbucks Frappuccino product. The marketing materials, including artwork on Frappuccino cups, websites, and on signage at Starbucks’ retail locations and promotional videos, were strikingly similar to Hayuk’s artworks. The artist promptly launched a copyright infringement lawsuit against both Starbucks and its advertising agency, claiming that Starbucks created artwork that was substantially similar to her paintings and further, the Starbucks material appropriated the “total concept and feel” of her paintings, even though there was no “carbon copy” of any particular painting.

    Last week, A US District Court handed down its decision in Hayuk v. Starbucks Corp and 71andSunny Partners LLC (PDF) (Case No. 15cv4887-LTS SDNY). It is well settled that copyright does not protect an artist’s style or elements of her ideas. The court denied the claim that any copyright infringement occurred. In analyzing the two images, the court notes that the proper analysis is not to dissect, crop or rotate particular elements or pieces of the two works and lay the isolated parts side-by-side, but rather to look at substantial similarity of the works as a whole. The court concluded that “Although the two sets of works can be said to share the use of overlapping colored rays in a general sense, such elements fall into the unprotectible category of ‘raw materials’ or ideas in the public domain.” [Emphasis added] Thus, there could be no finding of substantial similarity and the claims were dismissed.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    Google Appeals Equustek to SCC

    By Richard Stobbe

    Courtesy of GoogleThe Google and Equustek Saga has garnered attention across Canada and even among US commentators (something rare for Canadian decisions). In September, 2015, Google Inc. filed an application for leave to appeal the decision to the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC), and as of January, 2016, the leave application materials have been submitted to the court. With luck, the SCC will take up the case, and we’ll see a decision in late 2016.

    If the case does proceed, you can expect the intervenors to line up for a place at the table.

    The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), for example, unsuccessfully argued against the “dangerous ruling” at the BC Court of Appeal level, and they can be expected to advance their arguments at the SCC. Their position is that “a worldwide injunction would set a dangerous precedent that could later be used to limit the legal and equitable rights of others to receive speech.” The EFF raised US free speech arguments – okay, so the US Constitution may not be persuasive at the Canadian court, but worth a try. They maintain that “No single country should have veto power over Internet speech.”

    Further reading: Is Google “Feeling Lucky” at the Supreme Court?

    Stay tuned for more updates – this is one to watch.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

    1 comment

    Online Infringement and Norwich Orders: an update

    .
    By Richard Stobbe

    This is a case that became something of a lightning rod in the storm of subscriber privacy rights vs. copyright. As we wrote in our earlier post, a copyright owner can only enforce its rights against online infringement if it knows the identity of the infringer. It can seek a court order (called a Norwich order) to disclose the identity of those alleged infringers. Canadian law is clear that “A court order is required in every case as a condition precedent to the release of subscriber information.”

    Such an order was used by Voltage Pictures to obtain the names and addresses of some 2,000 subscribers of an ISP known TekSavvy Solutions Inc. TekSavvy sought reimbursement of its costs for complying with the order: TekSavvy claimed recovery of a total of $346,480.68. Voltage offered to pay $884.00. The lower court concluded that Voltage should pay $21,557.50 to cover TekSavvy’s legal costs, administrative costs, and disbursements of abiding with the Order.

    TekSavvy appealed that order.

    In Voltage Pictures LLC v. John Doe, 2015 FC 1364 (CanLII), the court awarded TekSavvy an additional amount of $11,822.50. A win? Not really, considering how much they claimed, and what it would have cost to run the appeal.

    The court also wagged a finger at TekSavvy. Since TekSavvy was only obliged to deliver the subscriber info after payment of its costs, the payment issue resulted in a significant delay in the supply of the subscriber names. The court complained that “…Voltage has not been able to obtain the information that it was lawfully entitled to for more than two years after Prothonotary Aalto’s Order. The failure to provide this information, on all accounts, appears to be due to TekSavvy’s unwarranted and excessive cost claims in the amount now of $350,000…”

    It went on to note that “…the background circumstantial results do not sit well with the Court. They confirm that the policy in these types of motions should normally be to facilitate the plaintiff’s legitimate efforts to obtain the information from ISPs on the prima facie illegal activities of its subscribers. In my view, courts should be careful not to allow the ISP’s intervention to unduly interfere in the copyright holder’s efforts to pursue the subscribers, except where a good case is made out to do so. While it may be a practice to require prepayment of the ISP’s costs of the motion, the court must not let this issue delay unnecessarily the execution of the order to the extent possible. Reasonable security for costs may be preferable in some cases.” [Emphasis added]

    As with the earlier decision, this case serves as guidance to copyright holders who are seeking the information of anonymous infringers, and to ISPs who must balance the privacy rights of subscribers.

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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    Trademarks and Metatags: an update

    .
    By Richard Stobbe

    What if a competitor cut and paste the metatags from your website and used them on the competitor’s site? Is there a remedy under Canadian law? Are metatags subject to trademark protection? The answer is… it depends.

    Red Label Vacations (redtag.ca) sued its rival 411 Travel Buys for use of metatags, including “Red Tag Vacations” in the 411 Travel Buys website. The Federal Court dismissed the trademark and copyright claims of Red Label Vacations (see: No copyright or trademark protection for metatags). Red Label Vacations appealed.

    In Red Label Vacations Inc. v. 411 Travel Buys Limited, 2015 FCA 290, the Federal Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal, and upheld the lower court decision.

    The court agreed that 411 Travel Buys had copied the metatags from Red Label’s site, but noted that none of the metatags appeared in the visible portion of the 411 Travel Buys website. Therefore, consumers did not see any of the metatags. In that sense, there was no “use” of the metatags as trademarks for the purposes of determining infringement.

    Interestingly, there was one instance where the metatags were visible, and that was in the Google search result, where the words “Book Online with Red Tag Vacations & Pay Less Guaranteed” appeared in connection with the 411 Travel Buys site. The court considered that this would have the effect of sending consumers to Red Label’s site.

    The court did leave the door ajar for other metatag trademark infringement cases, noting “in some situations, inserting a registered trade-mark (or a trade-mark that is confusing with a registered trade-mark) in a metatag may constitute advertising of services that would give rise to a claim for infringement…” [Emphasis added]

    Calgary – 07:00 MT

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