Archive for the 'IP Licensing' Category

CASL 2.0: The Computer Program Provisions (Part 3)

By Richard Stobbe

The CRTC has released guidelines on the implementation of the incoming computer-program provisions of Canada’s Anti-Spam Law (CASL). Software vendors should review the  CASL Requirements for Installing Computer Programs for guidance on installing software on other people’s computer systems. Remember, the start-date of January 15, 2015 is less than 2 months away. Here are a few highlights:

  • CASL prohibits the installation of software to another person’s computing computer – which includes any device, laptop, smartphone, desktop, gaming console, etc.) in the course of commercial activity without express consent;
  • Downloading your own app from iTunes or Google Play? CASL does not apply to software, apps or updates that are downloaded by users themselves; 
  • Maybe you still use a CD to install software? CASL does not apply to “offline” installations by a user;
  • Where implied consent cannot be relied upon, then express consent is required. The guidelines state the following:

“When seeking consent for the installation you must clearly and simply set out:

  1. The reason you are seeking consent;
  2. Who is seeking consent (e.g., name of the company; or if consent is sought on behalf of another person, that person’s name);
  3. If consent is sought on behalf of another person, a statement indicating which person is seeking consent and which person on whose behalf consent is being sought;
  4. The mailing address and one other piece of contact information (i.e., telephone number, email address, or Web address);
  5. A statement indicating that the person whose consent is sought can withdraw their consent; and
  6. A description in general terms of the functions and purpose of the computer program to be installed.”  

 

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Indirect Patent Infringement in the US

By Richard Stobbe

In a recent decision in the US (Riverbed Technology, Inc. v. Silver Peak Systems, Inc.), a company was found liable for indirect patent infringement even though the infringing features of its product were disabled when the product was sold. In the post-sale period, customers enabled the infringing features.  This was enough for the court to find the company liable for indirect infringement.

This case arose between two rivals in the wide area network market – Riverbed and Silver Peak. Riverbed sued Silver Peak for infringement of a number of US patents. Silver Peak counterclaimed, alleging infringement of three US patents. A jury trial eventually returned a verdict in favour of Silver Peak. Silver Peak asserted indirect infringement against Riverbed with respect to two patents. Specifically, the jury concluded that Riverbed “contributorily infringed” one of the patents and “induced infringement” of the other.

Riverbed challenged these conclusions, arguing that there was insufficient evidence of customer use of the accused features in the United States. Riverbed pointed out that the feature of its product that was allegedly infringing – a feature known as SDR-Adaptive – was disabled before the product was sold to consumers in the US. No-one disputed that fact. However, through user forums on the Riverbed website, as well as product manuals issued by Riverbed, consumers were taught how to enable and use this feature.

The court reviewed this surrounding evidence and concluded: “In sum, Silver Peak has offered evidence of Riverbed’s high sales volume, an instruction manual describing how to activate SDR-A, and several blog entries on Riverbed’s U.S. support forum from people who used their Riverbed devices with SDR-A enabled. Taken together, this circumstantial evidence is sufficient…” Riverbed was found to have indirectly infringed the Silver Peak patents.

Lessons for business? Canadian companies selling into the US should be aware that sales of their products may form the basis for liability in the US if used by customers in the US in infringing ways.

Related Reading: A Company May Be Liable for Indirect Infringement Where Its Customers Enable an Infringing Feature Even Though the Company Sells Its Product with That Feature Disabled

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The Troubles with Patent Inventorship

By Richard Stobbe

Determining inventorship is answering the question: who contributed enough to an invention to be named as an “inventor” on the patent application? It’s critical, as reviewed by my colleague Shohini Bagchee in her article Whose Invention Is It Anyway? – Some Thoughts on Patent Inventorship and Ownership.

Although the US case Ethicon Inc. v. U.S. Surgical Corp. (135 F.3d 1456) is not a new decision, it’s worth reviewing since it neatly illustrates the troubles that can arise. In Ethicon, a first inventor, Dr. Yoon, obtained a patent covering a certain surgical device. The patent contained 55 claims. Yoon granted a license to Ethicon. On the stregth of this license, Ethicon turned around and sued its competitor U.S. Surgical for infringing two of the claims in the Yoon patent. U.S. Surgical in the course of preparing its defence found that Mr. Choi had contributed to the invention and he should have been named as co-inventor on the Yoon patent.

Mr. Choi contributed to only two of the 55 claims – two claims which were not at issue in the infringement action. In its defence, U.S. Surgical sought – and the court granted – an order that Mr. Choi be added as a co-inventor to the patent. Even though Mr. Choi had contributed to a small percentage of the overall invention (and had contributed to claims that were not at issue in the lawsuit), his status as a co-inventor permitted him under US law to grant a license to the whole patent. Ethicon’s patent infringement lawsuit was dismissed after Choi granted a retroactive patent license to U.S. Surgical.

Lessons for business?

  • Internal IP policies and invention-disclosure protocols should be designed to capture all inventors who contributed to inventorship.
  • In joint research agreements or joint development agreements, don’t ignore co-inventorship issues.
  • Remember that invention-disclosure and inventorship should dovetail with invention assignment agreements, as well as the IP provisions in employment agreements and consultant agreements.
  • Ensure you are getting legal advice regarding inventorship as it relates to the jurisdiction in which you are filing your patent application.
  • Remember that the law in Canada and the US differs on this point: A co-owner’s interest in a co-owned patent can be licensed without the consent of the other owner in the US and there is no need to account to the other owner for licensing revenue; but in Canada the patent cannot be licensed without the consent of the other co-owner.

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CASL 2.0: The Computer Program Provisions (Part 2)

By Richard Stobbe

In Part 1 we looked at some basic concepts. In Part 2, we look at “enhanced disclosure” requirements.

If the computer program that is to be installed performs one or more of the functions listed below, the person who seeks express consent must disclose additional information. This disclosure must be made “clearly and prominently, and separately and apart from the licence agreement”. In this additional or enhanced disclosure, the software vendor must describe the program’s “material elements” including the nature and purpose of the program, and the impact on the user’s computer system. A software vendor must bring this info to the attention of the user. This applies if you, as the software vendor, want to install a program that does any of the following things, and causes the computer system to operate in a manner that “is contrary to the reasonable expectations of the owner”. (You have to guess at the reasonable expectations of the user.) These are the functions that the legislation is aimed at:

  • collecting personal information stored on the computer system;
  • interfering with the owner’s or an authorized user’s control of the computer system;
  • changing or interfering with settings, preferences or commands already installed or stored on the computer system without the knowledge of the owner or an authorized user of the computer system;
  • changing or interfering with data that is stored on the computer system in a manner that obstructs, interrupts or interferes with lawful access to or use of that data by the owner or an authorized user of the computer system;
  • causing the computer system to communicate with another computer system, or other device, without the authorization of the owner or an authorized user of the computer system;
  • installing a computer program that may be activated by a third party without the knowledge of the owner or an authorized user of the computer system.

If the computer program or app that you, as the software vendor, want to install does any of these things, then you need to comply with the enhanced disclosure obligations, as well as get express consent.

There are some exceptions: A user is considered to have given express consent if the program is

  • a cookie,

  • HTML code,

  • Java Scripts,

  • an operating system,

  • any other program that is executable only through the use of another computer program whose installation or use the person has previously expressly consented to, or

  • a program that is necessary to correct a failure in the operation of the computer system or a program installed on it and is installed solely for that purpose; AND

  • the person’s conduct is such that it is reasonable to believe that they consent to the program’s installation.

Remember: These additional provisions in CASL which deal with the installation of software come into effect on January 15, 2015, in less than 3 months. An offence under CASL can result in monetary penalties as high as $1 million for individuals and $10 million for businesses.

If you are a software vendor selling in Canada, get advice on the implications for automatic installs and updates, and how to structure consents, whether this is for business-to-business, business-to-consumer, or mobile apps. There are already more than 1,000 complaints under the anti-spam provisions of the law. You don’t want to be the test case for the computer program provisions.

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CASL 2.0: The Computer Program Provisions (Part 1)

By Richard Stobbe

It’s mid-October. Like many businesses in Canada, you may be weary of hearing about CASL compliance. Hopefully that weariness is due to all the hard work you did 3 months ago to bring your organization into compliance for the July 1st start-date.

If you’re a software vendor, then you should gird yourself for round two: Yes, there are additional provisions in CASL which deal with the installation of software, and those rules come on stream in 3 months on January 15, 2015.

Section 8 of CASL ostensibly deals with spyware and malware. Hackers are not the only problem; think of the Sony Rootkit case (See our earlier post here) as another example of the kind of thing that this law was designed to address.

This is the essence of Section 8: “A person must not, in the course of a commercial activity, install …a computer program on any other person’s computer system… unless the person has obtained the express consent of the owner …” This applies only if the computer system is located in Canada, or if the person either is in Canada at the relevant time or is acting under the direction of a person who is in Canada at the time when they give the directions.

This relatively simple idea – get consent if you want to install an application on someone else’s system in Canada – has far-reaching implications due to the way the legislation draws the definitions of “computer program” and “computer system” from the Criminal Code. As you can guess, the Criminal Code definitions are extremely broad. So, what does this mean in real life?

  • Certain types of specified programs require “enhanced disclosure” by the software vendor. (I am saying ‘software vendors’ as those are the entities most likely to bring themselves into compliance. Of course, hackers and organized crime syndicates should also take note of the enhanced disclosure requirements);
  • Express consent, under this law, means that the consent must be requested clearly and simply, and the purpose of the consent must be described;
  • The software vendor requesting consent must describe the function and purpose of the computer program that is to be installed;
  • The software vendor requesting consent must provide an electronic address so that the user can request, within a period of one year, that the program be removed or disabled;
  • Note that if a computer program is installed before January 15, 2015, then the person’s consent is implied. This implied consent lasts until the user gives notice that they don’t want the installation anymore. Or until January 15, 2018, whichever comes first. I’m not making this stuff up, that’s what the Act says.
  • One more thing: Enhanced disclosure does not apply if the computer program only collects, uses or communicates “transmission data”. Transmission data is what you might call envelope information. The Act defines it as data that deals with “dialling, routing, addressing or signalling” and although it might show info like “type, direction, date, time, duration, size, origin, destination or termination of the communication”, it does not reveal “the substance, meaning or purpose of the communication”. So there is effectively a carve-out for the tracking of this category info.

Don’t worry, Canadian anti-spam laws are kind of like Lord of the Rings: Sequels will keep coming whether you like it or not. Once we’re past January 15, 2015, you can look forward to July 1, 2017, which is the day on which sections 47 to 51, 55 of CASL come into force. These provisions institute a private right of action for any breach of the Act.

If you are a software vendor selling in Canada, get advice on the implications for automatic installs and updates, whether this is for business-to-business, business-to-consumer, or mobile apps. There are already more than 1,000 complaints under the anti-spam provisions of the law. You don’t want to be the test case for the computer program provisions.

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Drafting IT Agreements: Oct. 14-15

By Richard Stobbe

I will be speaking next week at the 10th Essentials of Commercial Contracts Course in Calgary, Alberta (Download PDF) on the subject of IT contracting. This session will discuss key considerations in IT licensing and service agreements including:

  • Key clauses in IT agreements and common mistakes
  • Various models for licensing software
  • Overlap between licenses and service agreements
  • Service level metrics and remedies for non-compliance
  • Statements of work in IT consulting and the lawyer’s role
  • Other issues: privacy, vendor lock-in, third party and open source software.

If you want additional information, please contact me.

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What, exactly, is a browsewrap?

By Richard Stobbe

Browsewrap, clickwrap, clickthrough, terms of use, terms of service, EULA. Just what are we talking about and how did we get here?

In Nguyen v. Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2014 WL 4056549 (9th Cir. Aug. 18, 2014) the US Ninth Circuit wades into the subject of online contracting. Law professor Eric Goldman (ericgoldman.org) argues that these terms we’re accustomed to using, to describe ecommerce agreements, only contribute to the confusion. The term “browsewrap” derives from “clickwrap”, which is itself a portmanteau derived from the concept of a shrinkwrap license. As one court described it in 1996: “The ‘shrinkwrap license’ gets its name from the fact that retail software packages are covered in plastic or cellophane shrink wrap, and some vendors… have written licenses that become effective as soon as the customer tears the wrapping from the package.”

The enforceability of a browsewrap – it is argued – is based not on clicking, but on merely browsing the webpage in question. However, the term browsewrap is often used in the context of an online retailer hoping to enforce its terms, in a situation where they should have used a proper click-through agreement.

In Nguyen, the court dealt with a claim by a customer who ordered HP TouchPad tablets from the Barnes & Noble site. Although the customer entered an order through the shopping cart system, Barnes & Noble later cancelled that order. The customer sued. The resulting litigation turned on the enforceability of the online terms of service (TOS). The court reviewed the placement of the TOS link and found a species of unenforceable browsewrap – the TOS link was somewhere near the checkout button, but completion of the sale was not conditional upon acceptance of the TOS.

There is a whole spectrum upon which online terms can be placed. At one end, a click-the-box agreement (in which completion of the transaction is conditional upon acceptance of the TOS) is generally considered to be valid and enforceable. At the other end, we see passive terms that are linked somewhere on the website, usually from the footer, sometimes hovering near the checkout or download button.  In Nguyen, the terms were passive and required no active step of acceptance. The court concluded that: “Where a website makes its terms of use available via a conspicuous hyperlink on every page of the website but otherwise provides no notice to users nor prompts them to take any affirmative action to demonstrate assent, even close proximity of the hyperlink to relevant buttons users must click on —without more — is insufficient…”

This leaves open the possibility that browsewrap terms (where no active step is required) could be enforceable if the user has notice (actual or constructive) of those terms.

In Canada, the concept was most recently addressed by the court in Century 21 Canada Limited Partnership v. Rogers Communications Inc., 2011 BCSC 1196 (CanLII). In that case, there was no active click-the-box terms of use, but the “browsewrap” terms were nevertheless upheld as enforceable, in light of the circumstances. Three particular factors convinced the court that it should uphold the terms: 1. the dispute did not involve a business-to-consumer dispute (as it did in Nguyen). Rather the parties were “sophisticated commercial entities”. 2. The defendants had actual notice of the terms. 3. The defendants employed similar terms on their own site.

The lessons for business?

The “browsewrap” is a passive attempt to impose terms on a site visitor or customer. Such passive terms should not be employed where the party seeking to enforce those terms requires certainty of enforceability. Even where there is a “conspicuous hyperlink” or “notice to users” or “close proximity of the hyperlink”, none of these factors should be relied upon, even if they might create an enforceable contract in special cases. Maybe it is time to retire the term “browsewrap” and replace it with “probably unenforceable”.

Now, do you still want to rely on a browsewrap agreement?

Related Reading: Online Terms – What Works, What Doesn’t

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Confidentiality & Sealing Orders in Software Disputes

By Richard Stobbe

Two software companies wanted to integrate their software products. The relationship soured and one of the parties – McHenry – purported to terminate the Software Licensing and Development Agreement and then launched a lawsuit in the Federal Court in the US, claiming copyright infringement and breach of contract. The other party – ARAS – countered by invoking the mandatory arbitration clause in the software agreement. The US court compelled the parties to resolve their dispute through arbitration in Vancouver. After the arbitration, the arbitrator’s decision was appealed in the BC Supreme Court. In that appeal, McHenry sought a “sealing order” asking the BC court, in effect, to order confidentiality over the March 26, 2014 Arbitration Award itself. This is because ARAS, who prevailed at arbitration, circulated the arbitration award to others.

In the recent decision (McHenry Software Inc. v. ARAS 360 Incorporated, 2014 BCSC 1485 (CanLII)) the BC Supreme Court considered the law of “sealing orders” and confidentiality in the context of a dispute between two software companies.

The essence of McHenry’s complaint was that the arbitrator’s award should be treated confidentially, since it contained confidential and sensitive information about the dispute, which could harm or disadvantage McHenry in its negotiations with future software development partners.

The court reviewed the legal principles governing sealing orders. A “sealing order” is simply court-ordered confidentiality over court records or evidence. While there is a presumption in favour of public access in the Canadian justice system, there are times when it is appropriate to deny access to certain records to prevent a “serious risk to an important interest” as long as “the public interest in confidentiality outweighs the public interest in openness”. (To dig deeper on this, see: Sierra Club of Canada v. Canada (Minister of Finance), 2002 SCC 41 (CanLII), 2002 SCC 41.)

If you were hoping for a handy three-part test, you’re in luck:

  1. First, the risk in question must be real and substantial, and must pose a “serious threat” to the commercial interest in question.
  2. The interest must be tied to a public interest in confidentiality. The SCC said: “a private company could not argue simply that the existence of a particular contract should not be made public because to do so would cause the company to lose business, thus harming its commercial interests.” Courts must remember that a confidentiality order involves an infringement on freedom of expression, so it should not be undertaken to satisfy purely commercial interests.
  3. Third, the court must consider whether there are any reasonable alternatives to a confidentiality order, or look for ways to restrict the scope of the order as much as possible in the context.

Ultimately, the BC Court was not sympathetic to McHenry’s arguments for a sealing order. If McHenry was so concerned about the confidentiality of these proceedings, the court argued, then McHenry would not have launched a lawsuit against ARAS in the US Federal Court, where there is no confidentiality. In pursuing litigation, McHenry filed numerous documents in the public record, including its Arbitration Notice, its Statement of Claim in the Arbitration and its petition in the BC Court proceedings, some of which contained potentially sensitive information.

“Moreover,” the court continued, “there is no general principle that the confidentiality of arbitration proceedings carries over to court proceedings when the arbitration is appealed. On the contrary, such court proceedings are generally public.”

This case serves as a reminder of the confidentiality issues that can arise in the conext of a dispute between software companies, both in arbitration proceedings and in the litigation context. Make sure you seek experienced counsel when handling the complex issues of confidentiality, sealing orders and licensing disputes.

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Online Terms – What Works, What Doesn’t

By Richard Stobbe

The online fine print – those terms and conditions that you agree to when you buy something online – it really does matter where those terms are placed in the checkout process. A recent US case illustrates this point. In Tompkins v. 23andMe, Inc., 2014 WL 2903752 (N.D. Cal. June 25, 2014), the court dealt with an online checkout process for DNA testing kits sold by 23andMe. When completing a purchase, customers were not presented with any mandatory click-through screen for the transaction to complete. There was a passive link at the footer of the transaction page, something the court dismissed as a “browsewrap”, which was ineffective to bind the customers. In other words, the Terms of Service were not effective at that point in the transaction.

In order to obtain test results, however, customers were obliged to register and create an account with 23andMe. In this (post-sale) registration process, a mandatory click-through screen was presented to customers, not once but twice. The court decided that this second step was valid to bind the customers who purchased the DNA testing kits.

While this shows that courts can take a position that is sympathetic to online retailers, this should not be taken as an endorsement of this contracting process. In my view, the better approach would be to push customers through a mandatory click-through screen at both stages. This is particularly so in a case like 23andMe, where the first transaction is for sale of a product (the kit) and the second step relates to a service (processing test results). The two, of course, are intertwined, but the double click-through reduces risk and plugs the holes left by the single click-through. For example, a customer may buy a kit and never create an account, or use a kit without have purchased it. As the court notes: “it is possible for a customer to buy a DNA kit, for example, as a gift for someone else, so that the purchasing customer never needs to create an account or register the kit, and thus is never asked to acknowledge the TOS.”

We can speculate on why the click-through appeared at the second account-creation step, and not the first kit-purchasing step. Sometimes, the purchasing process is modified over time due to changes in marketing or sales strategies. Perhaps the company broke a unified transaction process, which ended with account-creation, into two separate steps after market research or customer feedback. When something like this happens, it is important to repeat the legal review, to ensure compliance with e-commerce best practices.

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Copyright Litigation and the Risk of Double Costs

By Richard Stobbe

An American photojournalist, Ms. Leuthold, was on the scene in New York City on September 11, 2001. She licensed a number of still photographs to the CBC for use in a documentary about the 9/11 attacks. The photos were included in 2 versions of the documentary, and the documentary was aired a number of times betwen 2002 and 2004. We originally wrote about this in an earlier post: Copyright Infringement & Licensing Pitfalls. The court found that the CBC had infringed copyright in the photographs in six broadcasts which were not covered by the licenses. Though Leuthold claimed damages of over $20 million, only $20,000 was awarded as damages by the court.

In Leuthold v. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2014 FCA 174, the Federal Court of Appeal upheld an award of double costs against Leuthold. Early in the litigation process, the CBC had formally offered to settle for $37,500 plus costs. Ms. Leuthold did not accept the CBC’s offer and went to trial where she was awarded $20,000. Ms. Leuthold’s total recovery was substantially less that the amount of the CBC’s offer. When this happens, a plaintiff can be liable under Rule 420 for double costs, which was awarded in this case. Double costs amounted to approximately $80,000 in these circumstances, which means Ms. Leuthold is liable for about 4 times the amount of the damage award. Although Ms. Leuthold objected that such a disproportionate costs award was “punitive”, the court concluded:

“The sad fact of the matter is that litigation produces winners and losers; that is why it is such a blunt tool in the administration of justice. But justice is not served by allowing persons who have imposed costs on others by pursuing or defending a claim which lacks merit to avoid the consequences of their behaviour. Such a policy would be more likely to bring the administration of justice into disrepute than the result in this case.”

For copyright litigation and licensing advice, contact the Field Law Intellectual Property & Technology Group.

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IT Contracts – Conference in Calgary

By Richard Stobbe

On October 14 and 15, 2014, I will be presenting on “Drafting IT Agreements” at the Essentials of Commercial Contracts (Calgary) Conference. This conference will discuss the legal and business framework of commercial contracts, negotiations and practical drafting tips.

The session on information technology (IT) contracting will review key considerations in IT licensing and service agreements, various models for licensing software, the overlap between licenses and service agreements, service level metrics and remedies for non-compliance, the use of  Statements of Work in IT agreements, as well as related issues: privacy, vendor lock-in, third party and open source software.

For more information, contact me or click on the link above.

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Intellectual Asset Management Best Practices – Part 1

By Richard Stobbe

Does your organization have “intellectual assets”? Regardless of what your organization does – whether it is a service-based business, or in the manufacturing sector, whether it is driven by cloud-based software or bricks-and-mortar locations, whether it is a multinational or a local start-up – chances are good that you can start to list the intellectual capital that has value in your organization. What do we mean by “intellectual assets”? There are many definitions, but one broad definition is simply “knowledge that has value in your organization”, and it can encompass:

  1. Human know-how and intellectual capital – the unwritten expertise, experience, concepts and technical knowledge that employees have in their heads; and
  2. Intellectual assets, including registered and unregistered intellectual property (IP) – this includes the codified or “captured” knowledge that adds to your organization’s value, such as trade secrets that might be captured in internal processes, manuals, design specifications, software source-code and other unpublished know-how, as well as the value represented by:
    • Patents (including Canadian and international applications and issued patents);
    • Copyright-protected works (including published and unpublished written works);
    • Trademarks (including logo designs, registered and common law marks);
    • Industrial designs, and other forms of registered intellectual property.

Some organizations are better at managing and obtaining value from their intellectual assets. What are the best practices for the management of these assets? In this series, we’ll review current best practices for management of intellectual assets as a competitive tool. Experts in the area of intellectual asset management have identified several layers or tiers of sophistication in the handling of such assets. Therefore, while a start-up inventor may certainly learn from the approach of Apple, Inc., each organization must look at best practices from the perspective of their organization, their resources and their stage of development. As a starting point, the following three steps lay the groundwork for future steps of IP management and value creation:

1: Conduct an Audit

The first step in any organization that is new to intellectual asset management is to conduct a review of existing assets. This is also a great exercise for organizations whose IP portfolio may be evolving – perhaps through recent growth, acquisitions, internal research and development (R&D) or divestiture. This step seeks answers to issues such as:

  • What does the organization own, and what is merely licensed? What are the gaps in intellectual assets?
  • Review unpatented inventions, patent applications, issued patents.
  • Review software developed by or for the organization.
  • Identify trade-secrets, focusing on non-public information that adds specific value to the organization, including intangibles such as customer lists, processes, early-stage prototypes, and strategic plans.
  • What non-disclosure agreements or confidentiality obligations has the organization agreed to?
  • Is the organization party to any IP licenses (in- or out-licenses)? Are there any co-development or joint venture agreements that involve IP creation?
  • Identify the organization’s trademarks, logos and brands. Note registered and unregistered marks in use by the organization in different jurisdictions.

This audit or portfolio review process may start as a simple list, and may evolve into a more detailed table or spreadsheet. It may involve more sophisticated tracking systems which are maintained with IP counsel, to track patent maintenance fees and deadlines.

2: IP Education

An organization must also educate its personnel on the strategic importance of intellectual property within the organization.

This is a process of raising awareness and providing education about the different types of intellectual property and the organization’s policies related to these assets. This must involve the leadership of the organization and it may even trickle down to “front line” personnel. It should involve the integration of intellectual property strategy into overall business strategy, or if that IP strategy is already in place, it may involve internal education sessions and policies, such as confidentiality and invention disclosure policies. In some cases, it involves a process of educating professional advisors about the strategic role of IP in the organization.

IP counsel can play an important role to provide education, and to be a resource for developing internal policies, reviewing agreements, and drafting contractual provisions.

3: Implementing “Make versus Buy” Decisions

The next step can certainly happen in tandem with the other steps of IP portfolio analysis, and IP education. Many organizations are continuously innovating in their industry as they seek to gain and maintain their competitive advantage. However, not all organizations have the capacity to innovate internally. A medium-sized company may not have the R&D strength of its competitor, but it may still use strategic decisions to leverage the value of intellectual assets and gain an edge over competitors. Ultimately, the decisions on how to innovate involve a “make versus buy” decision. Through a screening process, an organization can weigh the various factors that influence its decision to pursue an innovation opportunity. At this stage, the organization is looking at factors such as:

  • Are ideas and inventions emanating from within the organization? This is certainly enhanced when the IP education and awareness is part of the organization’s culture.
  • What is the value of these ideas and inventions, as against the cost of developing the idea to a commercial product?
  • Is this a core or non-core function for this organization?
  • Is it more cost-effective for the organization to internally develop this as a product or innovation, to pay someone else to develop it, or to license it in from another company?
  • If it is internally developed, is IP protection available, and what type of protection will it be? Is it eligible for patent protection?

Here is one example of how these different pieces may fit together:

Let’s say an organization has reviewed and listed its trade secrets during an intellectual asset audit. In the course of this process, it learned that trade secrets formed an important part of the organization’s competitive advantage, but there was a lack of any internal confidentiality policies, nor was there any invention or idea disclosure process. With the help of counsel, it developed an internal confidentiality policy, as well as a modest reward system for idea disclosures. The CEO directed IP counsel to provide a lunch-and-learn session for employees, including those in the sales team. Employees were educated about their role in the organization’s value-chain, and the importance of maintaining secrecy over confidential information and innovative ideas. After the education sessions, someone in sales came forward to describe an idea for product improvement based on recent feedback from customers. This idea was filtered through the company’s “make versus buy” decision process, leading to a product improvement which was determined to be patentable. This patentable improvement blocked competitors from adopting this product change. The company’s confidentiality policy emphasized the importance of maintaining secrecy over the improvement until the patent application was filed and the product improvement was released for sale.

To discuss the importance of intellectual assets within your organization, contact Richard Stobbe in our Intellectual Property and Technology Group.

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Update on Anti-Patent-Troll Laws

By Richard Stobbe

Yesterday draft “anti-patent-troll” legislation was put forward in Washington. This is part of a ground swell of opposition to illegitimate patent demand letters from so-called patent assertion entities (PAEs), or “patent trolls”. This draft legislation, according to the sponsor of the proposed bill, “increases transparency and accountability to help expose and prevent fraudulent infringement claims. It would require patent demand letters to include certain basic information to help companies determine whether a letter is legitimate.”

See more at: this link

This proposed law approaches the issue from a consumer protection angle, using Federal Trade Commission (FTC) authority and state Attorney General authority for enforcement.

Another anti-patent-troll bill passed by the US House in 2013 is now stalled in the Senate. Congress may be stalled but the fact that patents are within federal jurisdiction has not prevented state legislatures from passing consumer-protection laws which target PAEs. I attended a lunch yesterday at which the Attorney General of Vermont spoke about his state’s efforts to deploy state-level consumer protection laws against PAEs. A case involving a well-known PAE by the name of MPHJ Technology is currently before the Vermont courts. The debates and the legislative responses are far from over.

Do we need anti-patent troll laws in Canada?

Calgary – 07:00 MDT

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Use of ADR in Technology Transactions

By Richard Stobbe

A recent WIPO Survey assessed the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) clauses in various technology transactions, and the results make for interesting reading for anyone who is in the business of negotiating technology deals. The goal of the survey was to establish trends in the use of ADR to handle technology-related disputes, and almost 400 participants from 62 different countries participated. A few takeaways:

  • Overall, the use of ADR clauses appears to be on the increase, as compared to the use of litigation in court.
  • Almost all of the respondents (94%) indicated that dispute resolution clauses are the subject of contract negotiations. In other words, negotiators are paying attention to these clauses, and not merely defaulting to the clause that is proposed by the other side, or comes with the precedent agreement.
  • Respondents were asked to estimate the percentage of their technology-related agreements that led to disputes. The results were:
    • License Agreements (25% of Respondents)
    • R&D Agreements (18% )
    • NDAs (Non-Disclosure Agreements) (16%)
    • Settlement Agreements (15%)
    • Assignments (13%), and
    • M&A Agreements (13%).
  • The most common dispute resolution clauses according to respondents were:
    • Court litigation (32%)
    • Arbitration (30%)
    • Mediation (12%)
    • Multi-tier clauses (17% of all clauses) in which mediation is deployed prior to court litigation, arbitration or expert determination.
  • Regarding time and cost, the estimates of respondents were as follows, and remember there are averages, and most would involve patent international disputes:
    • Court litigation (home jurisdiction) took approximately 3 years; and amounted on average to US$475,000
    • Court litigation (foreign jurisdiction) took on average 3.5 years; and amounted to US$850,000.
    • Arbitration was shorter, at 1 year; the cost added to US$400,000.
    • Mediation was shortest, at 8 months, and 91% of Respondents indicated that mediation costs were under US$100,000.
    • Interestingly, 25% of respondents indicated that “management time of business executives and wasted time of other participants in proceedings, lost productivity and lost business opportunities” represented important factors when assessing the costs of dispute resolution.

See: FULL PDF REPORT: Results of the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center International Survey on Dispute Resolution in Technology Transactions

Calgary – 07:00

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Patent Infringement Lawsuits Against Software End-Users

Are you a Canadian software vendor with customers in the USA? Let’s say your US end-user customer is sued for patent infringement in the US based on use of your software, but the lawsuit avoids naming your company. In other words, your customers are sued, but you are not.

Ok, so you avoided a lawsuit. However, for business reasons you may want to be “in the ring” to assist your end-user customers to defend the infringement claims. One of the defences to infringement is to challenge the validity of the patent in question. But if your company is not named, how do you raise that defence? In order to seek a “declaratory judgment” that the patent is invalid, you need something called “standing” – a right to make your case in court. If you are defending an infringement allegation (if you are named in the lawsuit), you have that standing as a defendant. But if not, you have to ask the court for standing… sound complicated?

This is what happened to Microsoft, when its end-users were sued for patent infringement by Datatern. Datatern, not wanting to lock horns with Microsoft (for obvious reasons) just named the software end-users in the patent infringement lawsuit. In Microsoft Corporation v. Datatern, Inc. (Fed. Cir. 2014), Microsoft sought standing to have the patents declared invalid.

The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals in the US said that Microsoft does not have the “right to bring the declaratory judgment action solely because their customers have been sued for direct infringement”. To bring an invalidity declaratory judgment action against DataTern, Microsoft needed something more. The court indicated that:

  • Microsoft would need to show a controversy between Microsoft and the patent holder as to Microsoft’s liability for:
    • induced infringement, or
    • contributory infringement,

    based on the alleged acts of direct infringement by the end-user customers; or

  • Microsoft would have standing if it had a contractual obligation to indemnify its customers against the infringement claim. In this case, there was no indemnity obligation.

The use of Microsoft-provided documentation by Datatern in the patent infringement lawsuit was enough to establish standing for Microsoft, since this implied that Microsoft encouraged (or “induced”) the infringing use. However, this only applied to some of the patents in question.

Wherever Datatern used third-party (non-Microsoft) documentation to evidence the alleged infringement, Microsoft was too far removed from the controversy and there was no implied assertion that Microsoft induced the infringement. Microsoft could not establish the necessary controversy between it and Datatern, the patent holder. In connection with that particular patent, Microsoft lacked standing and its declaratory judgment action to challenge the validity of the patent could not proceed.

Remember this is a US case, but Canadian software vendors should review these patent infringement issues with counsel (including the costs and benefits of IP infringement indemnity clauses) to ensure that their end-user license agreements manage the risks in light of this decision.

Calgary – 07:00 MDT

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Unilateral Changes to Online Terms: do they work?

Consumers wonder what exactly has changed when they are confronted with a new set of online terms, in a cloud-based service, website terms or software license. We reviewed this issue in an earlier post, which looked at changes to online terms in the middle of the product lifecycle. Amendments are often introduced due to changes in the law or changes in product functionality.

Instagram amended its terms of use in early 2013. In Rodriguez v. Instagram , CGC-13-532875 (San Francisco Sup. Ct. Feb 28, 2014), a US court reviewed a complaint alleging that Instagram’s new terms consituted a breach of good faith and fair dealing. The court noted that: “The New Terms modified the original terms in three allegedly material respects:

  1. in the Original Terms, Instagram disclaimed any ownership rights in content users post on Instagram, whereas in the New Terms Instagram disclaimed ownership of content users post on Instagram;
  2. in the Original Terms, Instagram was afforded a non-exclusive limited license to use, modify, delete from, add to, publicly perform, publicly display, reproduce, and translate content users posted on Instagram, whereas under the New Terms Instagram has a transferable and sub-licensable license to use the content users post, with the two allegedly material aspects being (i) the addition of sublicensing authority; and (ii) removal of any limitations on the scope of the license; and
  3. the New Terms add a liability waiver.”

The New Terms were structured so that users accepted the terms by continuing to use Instagram after the effective date. A user could decline acceptance by ceasing all use of Instagram. The plaintiff in this case did continue use of Instagram after the New Terms were introduced. This opened up the argument for Instagram that this user consented to be bound by the New Terms. The lack of a click-through was not fatal to Instagram’s case. As a result, this decision seems like a bright spot for cloud service providers and software licensors – after all, it seems to permit unilateral amendment clauses in online terms without forcing users into a mandatory click-through screen. The court also seems to accept that the new terms can apply retroactively to user-generated content that pre-dates the New Terms. However, a note of caution should be sounded for cloud computing providers and software vendors:

  • unilateral amendments to online terms should always be handled carefully;
  • consider in advance whether amendments are permitted under the current terms before imposing new terms;
  • due to the facts of this particular plaintiff, the court did not address the question of what would be done with user content if the user had ceased use of the service – i.e. if the user had not impliedly consented by continued use;
  • consider how to log or track user consent (either active consent or implied “continued-use” consent) by users.

Calgary – 07:00 MDT

Indemnities in a Software License: Article in The Licensing Journal

The article “Software Licenses & Indemnities: What Obligations Are You Taking On?” was published in the February 2014 edition of The Licensing Journal.

Calgary – 07:00 MDT

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International Breach of Copyright

Copyright in Canada is a function of the Copyright Act – without that law, there would be no copyright. How does Canadian copyright law interact with the copyright law in other countries?

In Active Operations Management (AOM) NA Inc. et al v. Reveal Group, 2013 ONSC 8014 (CanLII) (a law-school-exam-question of a case if ever there was one),  the court dealt with a claim by an Ontario company of infringement within Canada of UK copyright, by another Ontario company controlled by an Australian resident, Mr. Crouch.

The claim by AOM reads like a software vendor’s nightmare. AOM is the Canadian distributor of certain software developed in the UK. According to the allegations by AOM, Mr. Crouch copied elements of the software and a business method when he worked for an Australian licensee of the UK software. Mr. Crouch started a company in Canada and then allegedly used that as a vehicle to market a replica version of the UK software and the corresponding method in Canada.  With this (Canadian) copied version of the (UK) software , Mr. Crouch allegedly lured customers away from AOM. AOM filed a lawsuit alleging breach of copyright, misappropriation of trade secrets, interference with contractual relations, unjust enrichment and misappropriation of goodwill.

Remember, AOM was not the owner of the (UK) copyright – it was merely a distributor. The question for the court was whether AOM could maintain a copyright infringement lawsuit in Canada. To complicate matters, the “software” and the “method” were owned by two different (UK) owners. AOM added these owners to the lawsuit, but did not make the specifics clear in their claim.

As the court put it: “Copyright is a very specific right attaching to a ‘work’… Copyright cannot attach to an idea such as a method.  It can of course attach to the manuals or other material in which the method is described.  Similarly with computer software, copyright can attach to source code, to a graphic user interface, to manuals and to other material as defined in the Act.  Copyright cannot attach simply to what a computer program does.  The plaintiff must specify what it is that is covered by copyright and what it alleges has been done that gives rise to the statutory remedies.

The lessons for business?

  • Software vendors from outside Canada should know that, by virtue of international copyright conventions and treaties, international copyright can be enforced under Canadian copyright law;
  • The Canadian Copyright Act permits someone other than the copyright owner to sue for infringement of copyright – as long as that person has appropriate rights (such as a local distributor, as in this case). Here, AOM appeared to have rights to maintain the copyright infringement lawsuit, but did not specify its rights with enough clarity in the claim. Ensure that the chain-of-title is clear in the claim itself;
  • Regarding the additional claims – in particular, the trade-secret misappropriation – the court had this guidance: “It would be ludicrous …to compel a plaintiff to set out a trade secret with precision in the pleading.  To do so would destroy the secret itself. A trade secret is valuable precisely because it is secret.  It may be that information will have to be provided at the production and discovery stage but at that point the proprietor of the secret may seek confidentiality orders and to the extent that those details must be put into evidence may seek a sealing order.”

Calgary – 07:00 MT

Incoming Anti-Spam Software Regulations

Most Canadian businesses will have heard of the incoming Canadian Anti-Spam Law (referred to as CASL, which joins the Canadian pantheon of legislative acronyms like PIPEDA and PIPA). The consent requirements for sending commercial electronic messages (CEMs) is covered elsewhere (See here, and see this upcoming event on March 18 and 20, 2014). Those requirements come into effect July 1, 2014.

The software-related regulations are getting less press. Why? Possibly because CASL is being implemented in phases, and the software-related rules are not expected to be in full force until January 15, 2015. And possibly because the software-related regs are complicated and at times confusing.

This element of CASL is designed to control surreptitious installation of software, particularly “invasive software”. Generally, express, clear consent is required. Installation of invasive software imposes additional requirements. Implied consent (or “deemed express consent”) may be relied upon in other cases:

  • cookies, HTML code, Java scripts;
  • upgrades for telecom network security;
  • “reasonable” installs – where it is reasonable to expect that the user would consent.

Software vendors should take note of these incoming obligations, to assess and plan for any updates that will be required for CASL compliance. Get advice on how these regulations apply to your software products.

Calgary – 07:00 MST

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Deceit in a Licensing Agreement

Where a technology license carries with it an obligation to pay royalties based on revenues, how does the licensor determine if the revenues are accurately reported? The sales are known to the licensee, but the licensor has no way of determining what those sales are. Many license agreements impose reporting obligations on the licensee, so that monthly or quarterly sales are reported to the licensor, to enable accurate royalties to be calculated.  In the recent decision in XY, LLC v. Zhu , 2013 BCCA 352 (CanLII), the BC Court of Appeal dealt with a licensee who breached the terms of the technology license agreement, and committed the “tort of deceit” (that’s how lawyers say “they lied”).

In this case, the licensee did not only underreport or withhold information, they actively falsified records and thus substantially underpaid the royalties owed to the licensor. The tort of deceit is made up of these elements:

  1. a false representation or statement made by the defendant,
  2. the statement was knowingly false,
  3. the statement was made with the intention to deceive the plaintiff, and
  4. the statement materially induced the plaintiff to act, resulting in damage.

A damage award of over $8 million was awarded by the court, as an assessment of the amount would put the licensor in the position it would have been in, if the licensee had performed its obligations and paid the propert amount of royalties.

One interesting twist on appeal was whether the employees of the licensee should be personally liable. Employees are not generally held responsible for the wrongs committed by the employer. After reviewing the law, the Court of Appeal decided that the claims of deceit should be available against certain employees, and those employees were not shielded merely because they were employees acting in the course of their duties. Since these employees were actively devising ways to deceive the other side, they were acting outside the scope of regular duties, and the “just following orders” defence was not accepted by the court.

Calgary – 07:00 MST

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